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Main page on: Copyright Act
Disclaimer: These documents are not the official versions (more).
Source: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-42/230491.html
Act current to September 15, 2006

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PART I

COPYRIGHT AND MORAL RIGHTS IN WORKS

Copyright

3. (1) For the purposes of this Act, “copyright”, in relation to a work, means the sole right to produce or reproduce the work or any substantial part thereof in any material form whatever, to perform the work or any substantial part thereof in public or, if the work is unpublished, to publish the work or any substantial part thereof, and includes the sole right

(a) to produce, reproduce, perform or publish any translation of the work,

(b) in the case of a dramatic work, to convert it into a novel or other non-dramatic work,

(c) in the case of a novel or other non-dramatic work, or of an artistic work, to convert it into a dramatic work, by way of performance in public or otherwise,

(d) in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work, to make any sound recording, cinematograph film or other contrivance by means of which the work may be mechanically reproduced or performed,

(e) in the case of any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, to reproduce, adapt and publicly present the work as a cinematographic work,

(f) in the case of any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, to communicate the work to the public by telecommunication,

(g) to present at a public exhibition, for a purpose other than sale or hire, an artistic work created after June 7, 1988, other than a map, chart or plan,

(h) in the case of a computer program that can be reproduced in the ordinary course of its use, other than by a reproduction during its execution in conjunction with a machine, device or computer, to rent out the computer program, and

(i) in the case of a musical work, to rent out a sound recording in which the work is embodied,

and to authorize any such acts.

Simultaneous fixing

(1.1) A work that is communicated in the manner described in paragraph (1)(f) is fixed even if it is fixed simultaneously with its communication.

(1.2) to (4) [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 3]

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 3; R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 2; 1988, c. 65, s. 62; 1993, c. 23, s. 2, c. 44, s. 55; 1997, c. 24, s. 3.

4. [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 4]

Works in which Copyright may Subsist

5. (1) Subject to this Act, copyright shall subsist in Canada, for the term hereinafter mentioned, in every original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic work if any one of the following conditions is met:

(a) in the case of any work, whether published or unpublished, including a cinematographic work, the author was, at the date of the making of the work, a citizen or subject of, or a person ordinarily resident in, a treaty country;

(b) in the case of a cinematographic work, whether published or unpublished, the maker, at the date of the making of the cinematographic work,

(i) if a corporation, had its headquarters in a treaty country, or

(ii) if a natural person, was a citizen or subject of, or a person ordinarily resident in, a treaty country; or

(c) in the case of a published work, including a cinematographic work,

(i) in relation to subparagraph 2.2(1)(a)(i), the first publication in such a quantity as to satisfy the reasonable demands of the public, having regard to the nature of the work, occurred in a treaty country, or

(ii) in relation to subparagraph 2.2(1)(a)(ii) or (iii), the first publication occurred in a treaty country.

Protection for older works

(1.01) For the purposes of subsection (1), a country that becomes a Berne Convention country or a WTO Member after the date of the making or publication of a work shall, as of becoming a Berne Convention country or WTO Member, as the case may be, be deemed to have been a Berne Convention country or WTO Member at the date of the making or publication of the work, subject to subsection (1.02) and section 33.

Limitation

(1.02) Subsection (1.01) does not confer copyright protection in Canada on a work whose term of copyright protection in the country referred to in that subsection had expired before that country became a Berne Convention country or WTO Member, as the case may be.

Application of subsections (1.01) and (1.02)

(1.03) Subsections (1.01) and (1.02) apply, and are deemed to have applied, regardless of whether the country in question became a Berne Convention country or a WTO Member before or after the coming into force of those subsections.

First publication

(1.1) The first publication described in subparagraph (1)(c)(i) or (ii) is deemed to have occurred in a treaty country notwithstanding that it in fact occurred previously elsewhere, if the interval between those two publications did not exceed thirty days.

Idem

(1.2) Copyright shall not subsist in Canada otherwise than as provided by subsection (1), except in so far as the protection conferred by this Act is extended as hereinafter provided to foreign countries to which this Act does not extend.

Minister may extend copyright to other countries

(2) Where the Minister certifies by notice, published in the Canada Gazette, that any country that is not a treaty country grants or has undertaken to grant, either by treaty, convention, agreement or law, to citizens of Canada, the benefit of copyright on substantially the same basis as to its own citizens or copyright protection substantially equal to that conferred by this Act, the country shall, for the purpose of the rights conferred by this Act, be treated as if it were a country to which this Act extends, and the Minister may give a certificate, notwithstanding that the remedies for enforcing the rights, or the restrictions on the importation of copies of works, under the law of such country, differ from those in this Act.

(2.1) [Repealed, 1994, c. 47, s. 57]

(3) to (6) [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 5]

Reciprocity protection preserved

(7) For greater certainty, the protection to which a work is entitled by virtue of a notice published under subsection (2), or under that subsection as it read at any time before the coming into force of this subsection, is not affected by reason only of the country in question becoming a treaty country.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 5; 1993, c. 15, s. 2, c. 44, s. 57; 1994, c. 47, s. 57; 1997, c. 24, s. 5; 2001, c. 34, s. 34.

Term of Copyright

6. The term for which copyright shall subsist shall, except as otherwise expressly provided by this Act, be the life of the author, the remainder of the calendar year in which the author dies, and a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 6; 1993, c. 44, s. 58.

6.1 Except as provided in section 6.2, where the identity of the author of a work is unknown, copyright in the work shall subsist for whichever of the following terms ends earlier:

(a) a term consisting of the remainder of the calendar year of the first publication of the work and a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year, and

(b) a term consisting of the remainder of the calendar year of the making of the work and a period of seventy-five years following the end of that calendar year,

but where, during that term, the author’s identity becomes commonly known, the term provided in section 6 applies.

1993, c. 44, s. 58.

6.2 Where the identity of all the authors of a work of joint authorship is unknown, copyright in the work shall subsist for whichever of the following terms ends earlier:

(a) a term consisting of the remainder of the calendar year of the first publication of the work and a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year, and

(b) a term consisting of the remainder of the calendar year of the making of the work and a period of seventy-five years following the end of that calendar year,

but where, during that term, the identity of one or more of the authors becomes commonly known, copyright shall subsist for the life of whichever of those authors dies last, the remainder of the calendar year in which that author dies, and a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

1993, c. 44, s. 58.

7. (1) Subject to subsection (2), in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work, or an engraving, in which copyright subsists at the date of the death of the author or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, at or immediately before the date of the death of the author who dies last, but which has not been published or, in the case of a lecture or a dramatic or musical work, been performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication, before that date, copyright shall subsist until publication, or performance in public or communication to the public by telecommunication, whichever may first happen, for the remainder of the calendar year of the publication or of the performance in public or communication to the public by telecommunication, as the case may be, and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

Application of subsection (1)

(2) Subsection (1) applies only where the work in question was published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication, as the case may be, before the coming into force of this section.

Transitional provision

(3) Where

(a) a work has not, at the coming into force of this section, been published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication,

(b) subsection (1) would apply to that work if it had been published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication before the coming into force of this section, and

(c) the relevant death referred to in subsection (1) occurred during the period of fifty years immediately before the coming into force of this section,

copyright shall subsist in the work for the remainder of the calendar year in which this section comes into force and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year, whether or not the work is published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication after the coming into force of this section.

Transitional provision

(4) Where

(a) a work has not, at the coming into force of this section, been published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication,

(b) subsection (1) would apply to that work if it had been published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication before the coming into force of this section, and

(c) the relevant death referred to in subsection (1) occurred more than fifty years before the coming into force of this section,

copyright shall subsist in the work for the remainder of the calendar year in which this section comes into force and for a period of five years following the end of that calendar year, whether or not the work is published or performed in public or communicated to the public by telecommunication after the coming into force of this section.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 7; 1993, c. 44, s. 58; 1997, c. 24, s. 6.

8. [Repealed, 1993, c. 44, s. 59]

9. (1) In the case of a work of joint authorship, except as provided in section 6.2, copyright shall subsist during the life of the author who dies last, for the remainder of the calendar year of that author’s death, and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year, and references in this Act to the period after the expiration of any specified number of years from the end of the calendar year of the death of the author shall be construed as references to the period after the expiration of the like number of years from the end of the calendar year of the death of the author who dies last.

Nationals of other countries

(2) Authors who are nationals of any country, other than a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement, that grants a term of protection shorter than that mentioned in subsection (1) are not entitled to claim a longer term of protection in Canada.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 9; 1993, c. 44, s. 60.

10. (1) Where the owner referred to in subsection (2) is a corporation, the term for which copyright subsists in a photograph shall be the remainder of the year of the making of the initial negative or plate from which the photograph was derived or, if there is no negative or plate, of the initial photograph, plus a period of fifty years.

Where author majority shareholder

(1.1) Where the owner is a corporation, the majority of the voting shares of which are owned by a natural person who would have qualified as the author of the photograph except for subsection (2), the term of copyright is the term set out in section 6.

Author of photograph

(2) The person who

(a) was the owner of the initial negative or other plate at the time when that negative or other plate was made, or

(b) was the owner of the initial photograph at the time when that photograph was made, where there was no negative or other plate,

is deemed to be the author of the photograph and, where that owner is a body corporate, the body corporate is deemed for the purposes of this Act to be ordinarily resident in a treaty country if it has established a place of business therein.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 10; 1993, c. 44, s. 60; 1994, c. 47, s. 69(F); 1997, c. 24, s. 7.

11. [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 8]

11.1 Except for cinematographic works in which the arrangement or acting form or the combination of incidents represented give the work a dramatic character, copyright in a cinematographic work or a compilation of cinematographic works shall subsist

(a) for the remainder of the calendar year of the first publication of the cinematographic work or of the compilation, and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year; or

(b) if the cinematographic work or compilation is not published before the expiration of fifty years following the end of the calendar year of its making, for the remainder of that calendar year and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

1993, c. 44, s. 60; 1997, c. 24, s. 9.

12. Without prejudice to any rights or privileges of the Crown, where any work is, or has been, prepared or published by or under the direction or control of Her Majesty or any government department, the copyright in the work shall, subject to any agreement with the author, belong to Her Majesty and in that case shall continue for the remainder of the calendar year of the first publication of the work and for a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 12; 1993, c. 44, s. 60.

Ownership of Copyright

13. (1) Subject to this Act, the author of a work shall be the first owner of the copyright therein.

Engraving, photograph or portrait

(2) Where, in the case of an engraving, photograph or portrait, the plate or other original was ordered by some other person and was made for valuable consideration, and the consideration was paid, in pursuance of that order, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, the person by whom the plate or other original was ordered shall be the first owner of the copyright.

Work made in the course of employment

(3) Where the author of a work was in the employment of some other person under a contract of service or apprenticeship and the work was made in the course of his employment by that person, the person by whom the author was employed shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright, but where the work is an article or other contribution to a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, there shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be deemed to be reserved to the author a right to restrain the publication of the work, otherwise than as part of a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical.

Assignments and licences

(4) The owner of the copyright in any work may assign the right, either wholly or partially, and either generally or subject to limitations relating to territory, medium or sector of the market or other limitations relating to the scope of the assignment, and either for the whole term of the copyright or for any other part thereof, and may grant any interest in the right by licence, but no assignment or grant is valid unless it is in writing signed by the owner of the right in respect of which the assignment or grant is made, or by the owner’s duly authorized agent.

Ownership in case of partial assignment

(5) Where, under any partial assignment of copyright, the assignee becomes entitled to any right comprised in copyright, the assignee, with respect to the rights so assigned, and the assignor, with respect to the rights not assigned, shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as the owner of the copyright, and this Act has effect accordingly.

Assignment of right of action

(6) For greater certainty, it is deemed always to have been the law that a right of action for infringement of copyright may be assigned in association with the assignment of the copyright or the grant of an interest in the copyright by licence.

Exclusive licence

(7) For greater certainty, it is deemed always to have been the law that a grant of an exclusive licence in a copyright constitutes the grant of an interest in the copyright by licence.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 13; 1997, c. 24, s. 10.

14. (1) Where the author of a work is the first owner of the copyright therein, no assignment of the copyright and no grant of any interest therein, made by him, otherwise than by will, after June 4, 1921, is operative to vest in the assignee or grantee any rights with respect to the copyright in the work beyond the expiration of twenty-five years from the death of the author, and the reversionary interest in the copyright expectant on the termination of that period shall, on the death of the author, notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, devolve on his legal representatives as part of the estate of the author, and any agreement entered into by the author as to the disposition of such reversionary interest is void.

Restriction

(2) Nothing in subsection (1) shall be construed as applying to the assignment of the copyright in a collective work or a licence to publish a work or part of a work as part of a collective work.

(3) [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 11]

(4) [Repealed, R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 3]

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 14; R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 3; 1997, c. 24, s. 11.

14.01 [Repealed, 1997, c. 24, s. 12]

Moral Rights

14.1 (1) The author of a work has, subject to section 28.2, the right to the integrity of the work and, in connection with an act mentioned in section 3, the right, where reasonable in the circumstances, to be associated with the work as its author by name or under a pseudonym and the right to remain anonymous.

No assignment of moral rights

(2) Moral rights may not be assigned but may be waived in whole or in part.

No waiver by assignment

(3) An assignment of copyright in a work does not by that act alone constitute a waiver of any moral rights.

Effect of waiver

(4) Where a waiver of any moral right is made in favour of an owner or a licensee of copyright, it may be invoked by any person authorized by the owner or licensee to use the work, unless there is an indication to the contrary in the waiver.

R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 4.

14.2 (1) Moral rights in respect of a work subsist for the same term as the copyright in the work.

Succession

(2) The moral rights in respect of a work pass, on the death of its author, to

(a) the person to whom those rights are specifically bequeathed;

(b) where there is no specific bequest of those moral rights and the author dies testate in respect of the copyright in the work, the person to whom that copyright is bequeathed; or

(c) where there is no person described in paragraph (a) or (b), the person entitled to any other property in respect of which the author dies intestate.

Subsequent succession

(3) Subsection (2) applies, with such modifications as the circumstances require, on the death of any person who holds moral rights.

R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 4; 1997, c. 24, s. 13.

PART II

COPYRIGHT IN PERFORMER’S PERFORMANCES, SOUND RECORDINGS AND COMMUNICATION SIGNALS

Performers’ Rights

15. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a performer has a copyright in the performer’s performance, consisting of the sole right to do the following in relation to the performer’s performance or any substantial part thereof:

(a) if it is not fixed,

(i) to communicate it to the public by telecommunication,

(ii) to perform it in public, where it is communicated to the public by telecommunication otherwise than by communication signal, and

(iii) to fix it in any material form,

(b) if it is fixed,

(i) to reproduce any fixation that was made without the performer’s authorization,

(ii) where the performer authorized a fixation, to reproduce any reproduction of that fixation, if the reproduction being reproduced was made for a purpose other than that for which the performer’s authorization was given, and

(iii) where a fixation was permitted under Part III or VIII, to reproduce any reproduction of that fixation, if the reproduction being reproduced was made for a purpose other than one permitted under Part III or VIII, and

(c) to rent out a sound recording of it,

and to authorize any such acts.

Conditions

(2) Subsection (1) applies only if the performer’s performance

(a) takes place in Canada or in a Rome Convention country;

(b) is fixed in

(i) a sound recording whose maker, at the time of the first fixation,

(A) if a natural person, was a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, or a citizen or permanent resident of a Rome Convention country, or

(B) if a corporation, had its headquarters in Canada or in a Rome Convention country, or

(ii) a sound recording whose first publication in such a quantity as to satisfy the reasonable demands of the public occurred in Canada or in a Rome Convention country; or

(c) is transmitted at the time of the performer’s performance by a communication signal broadcast from Canada or a Rome Convention country by a broadcaster that has its headquarters in the country of broadcast.

Publication

(3) The first publication is deemed to have occurred in a country referred to in paragraph (2)(b) notwithstanding that it in fact occurred previously elsewhere, if the interval between those two publications does not exceed thirty days.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 15; 1993, c. 44, s. 61; 1997, c. 24, s. 14; 2001, c. 27, s. 235.

16. Nothing in section 15 prevents the performer from entering into a contract governing the use of the performer’s performance for the purpose of broadcasting, fixation or retransmission.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 16; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

17. (1) Where the performer authorizes the embodiment of the performer’s performance in a cinematographic work, the performer may no longer exercise, in relation to the performance where embodied in that cinematographic work, the copyright referred to in subsection 15(1).

Right to remuneration

(2) Where there is an agreement governing the embodiment referred to in subsection (1) and that agreement provides for a right to remuneration for the reproduction, performance in public or communication to the public by telecommunication of the cinematographic work, the performer may enforce that right against

(a) the other party to the agreement or, if that party assigns the agreement, the assignee, and

(b) any other person who

(i) owns the copyright in the cinematographic work governing the reproduction of the cinematographic work, its performance in public or its communication to the public by telecommunication, and

(ii) reproduces the cinematographic work, performs it in public or communicates it to the public by telecommunication,

and persons referred to in paragraphs (a) and (b) are jointly and severally liable to the performer in respect of the remuneration relating to that copyright.

Application of subsection (2)

(3) Subsection (2) applies only if the performer’s performance is embodied in a prescribed cinematographic work.

Exception

(4) If so requested by a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette, grant the benefits conferred by this section, subject to any terms and conditions specified in the statement, to performers who are nationals of that country or another country that is a party to the Agreement or are Canadian citizens or permanent residents within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and whose performer’s performances are embodied in works other than the prescribed cinematographic works referred to in subsection (3).

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 17; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14; 2001, c. 27, s. 236.

Rights of Sound Recording Makers

18. (1) Subject to subsection (2), the maker of a sound recording has a copyright in the sound recording, consisting of the sole right to do the following in relation to the sound recording or any substantial part thereof:

(a) to publish it for the first time,

(b) to reproduce it in any material form, and

(c) to rent it out,

and to authorize any such acts.

Conditions for copyright

(2) Subsection (1) applies only if

(a) the maker of the sound recording was a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, or a citizen or permanent resident of a Berne Convention country, a Rome Convention country or a country that is a WTO Member, or, if a corporation, had its headquarters in one of the foregoing countries,

(i) at the date of the first fixation, or

(ii) if that first fixation was extended over a considerable period, during any substantial part of that period; or

(b) the first publication of the sound recording in such a quantity as to satisfy the reasonable demands of the public occurred in any country referred to in paragraph (a).

Publication

(3) The first publication is deemed to have occurred in a country referred to in paragraph (2)(a) notwithstanding that it in fact occurred previously elsewhere, if the interval between those two publications does not exceed thirty days.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 18; R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 17(F); 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14; 2001, c. 27, s. 237.

Provisions Applicable to both Performers and Sound Recording Makers

19. (1) Where a sound recording has been published, the performer and maker are entitled, subject to section 20, to be paid equitable remuneration for its performance in public or its communication to the public by telecommunication, except for any retransmission.

Royalties

(2) For the purpose of providing the remuneration mentioned in subsection (1), a person who performs a published sound recording in public or communicates it to the public by telecommunication is liable to pay royalties

(a) in the case of a sound recording of a musical work, to the collective society authorized under Part VII to collect them; or

(b) in the case of a sound recording of a literary work or dramatic work, to either the maker of the sound recording or the performer.

Division of royalties

(3) The royalties, once paid pursuant to paragraph (2)(a) or (b), shall be divided so that

(a) the performer or performers receive in aggregate fifty per cent; and

(b) the maker or makers receive in aggregate fifty per cent.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 19; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

20. (1) The right to remuneration conferred by section 19 applies only if

(a) the maker was, at the date of the first fixation, a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, or a citizen or permanent resident of a Rome Convention country, or, if a corporation, had its headquarters in one of the foregoing countries; or

(b) all the fixations done for the sound recording occurred in Canada or in a Rome Convention country.

Exception

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), if the Minister is of the opinion that a Rome Convention country does not grant a right to remuneration, similar in scope and duration to that provided by section 19, for the performance in public or the communication to the public of a sound recording whose maker, at the date of its first fixation, was a Canadian citizen or permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or, if a corporation, had its headquarters in Canada, the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette, limit the scope and duration of the protection for sound recordings whose first fixation is done by a maker who is a citizen or permanent resident of that country or, if a corporation, has its headquarters in that country.

Exception

(3) If so requested by a country that is a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette, grant the right to remuneration conferred by section 19 to performers or makers who are nationals of that country and whose sound recordings embody dramatic or literary works.

Application of section 19

(4) Where a statement is published under subsection (3), section 19 applies

(a) in respect of nationals of a country mentioned in that statement, as if they were citizens of Canada or, in the case of corporations, had their headquarters in Canada; and

(b) as if the fixations made for the purpose of their sound recordings had been made in Canada.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 20; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14; 2001, c. 27, s. 238.

Rights of Broadcasters

21. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a broadcaster has a copyright in the communication signals that it broadcasts, consisting of the sole right to do the following in relation to the communication signal or any substantial part thereof:

(a) to fix it,

(b) to reproduce any fixation of it that was made without the broadcaster’s consent,

(c) to authorize another broadcaster to retransmit it to the public simultaneously with its broadcast, and

(d) in the case of a television communication signal, to perform it in a place open to the public on payment of an entrance fee,

and to authorize any act described in paragraph (a), (b) or (d).

Conditions for copyright

(2) Subsection (1) applies only if the broadcaster

(a) at the time of the broadcast, had its headquarters in Canada, in a country that is a WTO Member or in a Rome Convention country; and

(b) broadcasts the communication signal from that country.

Exception

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (2), if the Minister is of the opinion that a Rome Convention country or a country that is a WTO Member does not grant the right mentioned in paragraph (1)(d), the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette, declare that broadcasters that have their headquarters in that country are not entitled to that right.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 21; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

Reciprocity

22. (1) Where the Minister is of the opinion that a country other than a Rome Convention country grants or has undertaken to grant

(a) to performers and to makers of sound recordings, or

(b) to broadcasters

that are Canadian citizens or permanent residents within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or, if corporations, have their headquarters in Canada, as the case may be, whether by treaty, convention, agreement or law, benefits substantially equivalent to those conferred by this Part, the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette,

(c) grant the benefits conferred by this Part

(i) to performers and to makers of sound recordings, or

(ii) to broadcasters

as the case may be, that are citizens, subjects or permanent residents of or, if corporations, have their headquarters in that country, and

(d) declare that that country shall, as regards those benefits, be treated as if it were a country to which this Part extends.

Reciprocity

(2) Where the Minister is of the opinion that a country other than a Rome Convention country neither grants nor has undertaken to grant

(a) to performers, and to makers of sound recordings, or

(b) to broadcasters

that are Canadian citizens or permanent residents within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or, if corporations, have their headquarters in Canada, as the case may be, whether by treaty, convention, agreement or law, benefits substantially equivalent to those conferred by this Part, the Minister may, by a statement published in the Canada Gazette,

(c) grant the benefits conferred by this Part to performers, makers of sound recordings or broadcasters that are citizens, subjects or permanent residents of or, if corporations, have their headquarters in that country, as the case may be, to the extent that that country grants that those benefits to performers, makers of sound recordings or broadcasters that are Canadian citizens or permanent residents within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or, if corporations, have their headquarters in Canada, and

(d) declare that that country shall, as regards those benefits, be treated as if it were a country to which this Part extends.

Application of Act

(3) Any provision of this Act that the Minister specifies in a statement referred to in subsection (1) or (2)

(a) applies in respect of performers, makers of sound recordings or broadcasters covered by that statement, as if they were citizens of or, if corporations, had their headquarters in Canada; and

(b) applies in respect of a country covered by that statement, as if that country were Canada.

Application of Act

(4) Subject to any exceptions that the Minister may specify in a statement referred to in subsection (1) or (2), the other provisions of this Act also apply in the way described in subsection (3).

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 22; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14; 2001, c. 27, s. 239.

Term of Rights

23. (1) Subject to this Act, the rights conferred by sections 15, 18 and 21 terminate fifty years after the end of the calendar year in which

(a) in the case of a performer’s performance,

(i) its first fixation in a sound recording, or

(ii) its performance, if it is not fixed in a sound recording,

occurred;

(b) in the case of a sound recording, the first fixation occurred; or

(c) in the case of a communication signal, it was broadcast.

Term of right to remuneration

(2) The rights to remuneration conferred on performers and makers by section 19 have the same terms, respectively, as those provided by paragraphs (1)(a) and (b).

Application of subsections (1) and (2)

(3) Subsections (1) and (2) apply whether the fixation, performance or broadcast occurred before or after the coming into force of this Part.

Berne Convention countries, Rome Convention countries, WTO Members

(4) Where the performer’s performance, sound recording or communication signal meets the requirements set out in section 15, 18 or 21, as the case may be, a country that becomes a Berne Convention country, a Rome Convention country or a WTO Member after the date of the fixation, performance or broadcast is, as of becoming a Berne Convention country, Rome Convention country or WTO Member, as the case may be, deemed to have been such at the date of the fixation, performance or broadcast.

Where term of protection expired

(5) Subsection (4) does not confer any protection in Canada where the term of protection in the country referred to in that subsection had expired before that country became a Berne Convention country, Rome Convention country or WTO Member, as the case may be.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 23; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

Ownership of Copyright

24. The first owner of the copyright

(a) in a performer’s performance, is the performer;

(b) in a sound recording, is the maker; or

(c) in a communication signal, is the broadcaster that broadcasts it.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 24; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

25. Subsections 13(4) to (7) apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of the rights conferred by this Part on performers, makers of sound recordings and broadcasters.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 25; 1993, c. 44, s. 62; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.

Performers’ Rights — WTO Countries

26. (1) Where a performer’s performance takes place on or after January 1, 1996 in a country that is a WTO Member, the performer has, as of the date of the performer’s performance, a copyright in the performer’s performance, consisting of the sole right to do the following in relation to the performer’s performance or any substantial part thereof:

(a) if it is not fixed, to communicate it to the public by telecommunication and to fix it in a sound recording, and

(b) if it has been fixed in a sound recording without the performer’s authorization, to reproduce the fixation or any substantial part thereof,

and to authorize any such acts.

Where country joins WTO after Jan. 1, 1996

(2) Where a performer’s performance takes place on or after January 1, 1996 in a country that becomes a WTO Member after the date of the performer’s performance, the performer has the copyright described in subsection (1) as of the date the country becomes a WTO Member.

Performer’s performances before Jan. 1, 1996

(3) Where a performer’s performance takes place before January 1, 1996 in a country that is a WTO Member, the performer has, as of January 1, 1996, the sole right to do and to authorize the act described in paragraph (1)(b).

Where country joins WTO after Jan. 1, 1996

(4) Where a performer’s performance takes place before January 1, 1996 in a country that becomes a WTO Member on or after January 1, 1996, the performer has the right described in subsection (3) as of the date the country becomes a WTO Member.

Term of performer’s rights

(5) The rights conferred by this section subsist for the remainder of the calendar year in which the performer’s performance takes place and a period of fifty years following the end of that calendar year.

Assignment of rights

(6) Subsections 13(4) to (7) apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of a performer’s rights conferred by this section.

Limitation

(7) Notwithstanding an assignment of a performer’s right conferred by this section, the performer, as well as the assignee, may

(a) prevent the reproduction of

(i) any fixation of the performer’s performance, or

(ii) any substantial part of such a fixation,

where the fixation was made without the performer’s consent or the assignee’s consent; and

(b) prevent the importation of any fixation of the performer’s performance, or any reproduction of such a fixation, that the importer knows or ought to have known was made without the performer’s consent or the assignee’s consent.

R.S., 1985, c. C-42, s. 26; R.S., 1985, c. 10 (4th Supp.), s. 17(F); 1993, c. 44, s. 63; 1994, c. 47, s. 59; 1997, c. 24, s. 14.


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