<
 
 
 
 
?
>
Vous consultez une page Web conservée, recueillie par Bibliothèque et Archives Canada le 2007-05-16 à 16:08:38. Il se peut que les informations sur cette page Web soient obsolètes, et que les liens hypertextes externes, les formulaires web, les boîtes de recherche et les éléments technologiques dynamiques ne fonctionnent pas. Voir toutes les versions de cette page conservée.
Chargement des informations sur les médias

You are viewing a preserved web page, collected by Library and Archives Canada on 2007-05-16 at 16:08:38. The information on this web page may be out of date and external links, forms, search boxes and dynamic technology elements may not function. See all versions of this preserved page.
Loading media information
X
Skip navigation links (access key: Z)Library and Archives Canada / Biblioth?que et Archives Canada
Graphical element Fran?aisContact UsHelpSearchCanada Site
HomeAbout UsWhat's NewWhat's OnPublications

Banner: The Virtual Gramophone
Graphical elementIntroductionListenCollection Search
  

A Chronology of Sound Recording Technology, 1845-1950


The following chronology lists some significant events in the development of recorded sound. Included are advances in recording devices, methods and materials.

YEAR  
1847
  • Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, Ohio.
1851
  • Emile Berliner born in Hanover, Germany.
1857
  • the first documented recording of sound waves made by the phonautograph, invented by Léon Scott de Martinville.
1876
  • the magnetic or reluctance microphone patented by Alexander Graham Bell.
1877
  • Charles Cros deposits a sealed packet with the French Academy of Science, describing a method for recording sound in a spiral groove on a disc using photoengraving.
  • Thomas Edison makes first sketch of the phonograph, conceived of while he was working on the repeating telegraph.
  • an article predicting the various uses of the phonograph appears in the Scientific American.
  • the phonograph uses a brass cylinder covered with tinfoil.
  • both Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison develop a carbon microphone (loose contact transmitter).
1878
  • Edison patents the phonograph in the United States, Great Britain and Canada.
  • a demonstration of the phonograph held at the Governor-General’s residence (Rideau Hall) in Ottawa, Canada.
1880
  • with prize money granted to him by the French Academy of Science, Alexander Graham Bell establishes the Volta Laboratory Association, an electro-acoustic research facility.
1881
  • Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter develop a machine which improves upon the phonograph, and call the new device a graphophone.
  • the graphophone uses a cylinder made from beeswax or carnuba wax over a cardboard base.
1882
  • Herbert Berliner born.
1885
  • Canadian patent for the graphophone issued.
1886
  • American patents for the graphophone issued.
1887
  • Edison adopts modifications based upon the Bell-Tainter innovations and produces the Improved Phonograph.
  • Berliner receives patent for the gramophone.
1888
  • Berliner debuts the gramophone in Germany.
  • the early gramophone discs were made with a zinc base with a beeswax coating etched with chromic acid.
1889
  • the North American Phonograph Company publishes the first catalogue of records.
  • Louis Glass develops the coin operated phonograph.
  • Berliner begins to stamp gramophone discs in Vulcanite, or hard rubber.
1897
  • Berliner granted Canadian patent for the gramophone.
  • gramophone discs begin to be made of a thermoplastic shellac compound called Durinoid.
1900
  • Valdemar Poulson wins the Grand Prix at the World Exhibition in Paris for the Telegraphon, a magnetic recording device which uses carbon steel piano wire wound on brass spoons or drums.
1901
  • cylinders are now made of celluloid
1904
  • Colin McKenzie of Whitehorse, Yukon receives a patent for a double-sided record. The Victor Talking Machine Co. buys it.
1906
  • Reginald A. Fessenden, a Canadian-born physicist, makes the first radio broadcast of a gramophone record.
1908
  • Columbia issues a double-sided record. Victor takes Columbia to court for patent infringement, but Columbia wins right to make double-sided records.
  • Edison introduces the Amberol cylinder, made of a thermoplastic called Condensite.
1912
  • Edison introduces the Blue Amberol cylinder, made of bright blue nitrocellulose.
1917
  • E.C. Wente of Western Electric perfects the first effective condenser microphone, which becomes the preferred microphone for sound recording.
1920
  • Horace O. Merriman, a Canadian, and Lionel Guest, an Englishman, make the first commercial electrical recording at the funeral of the Unknown Soldier at Westminster Abbey.
1924
  • Joseph Maxfield of Western Electric records a radio broadcast carried over telephone lines.
  • the Compo Co. conducts its first electric recording session.
1925
  • C.W. Rice and E.W. Kellogg perfect the dynamic loudspeaker.
1926
  • Brunswick-Balke-Collender introduce the first all-electric phonograph.
1929
  • Ludwig Blattner Picture Corp. Ltd. of London joins with Kurt Stille's Telegraphie-Patent-Syndicat to produce the Blattnerphone, which magnetically records motion picture sound on steel tape. Widely used to record radio broadcasts.
1931
  • S.B. Sawyer patents the crystal microphone.
  • RCA Victor experiments with a 33 1/3 rpm record with double the groove density in an attempt to increase playing time.
1933
  • Kurt Stille develops a vastly improved magnetic recorder using better steel wire and vacuum tube amplifiers. This machine, called a Textophone, was widely used by the Gestapo during WWII.
1934
  • around this time A.D. Blumelien patents a system for stereo recording on disc, employing a lateral cut for one channel, and a vertical cut for the other.
1936
  • Allgemeine Electricitats-Gesellschaft (AEG) and I.G. Farben demonstrate the Magnetophon K1, which recorded magnetically on cellulose acetate film coated with gamma ferric oxide, developed by Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik (BASF), a division of I.G. Farben.
1937
  • A.H. Reeves invents Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), the basis of digital recording.
1943
  • BASF replaces cellulose acetate tape with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape for magnetic recording.
1947
  • Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing (3M) begins producing ferric oxide coated tape for magnetic recording.
1948
  • Columbia introduces commercially successful long playing records (LPs) which play at 33 1/3 rpm.
  • use of vinyl as record material becomes universal.
1949
  • RCA Victor introduces the 45 rpm 7-inch single with microgrooves.
  • Claude Shannon establishes the theoretical framework for digital recording in his book, The Mathematical Theory of Communication.