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Banner: Canadian Libraries and Librarianship

Citing Electronic Sources:
A Bibliography


Introduction

The use of electronic forms of information has become increasingly necessary. Today, information found on CD-ROMs, the World Wide Web, online databases, Usenet Newsgroups, and electronic journals can often not be found in the traditional print format. In order to credit electronic information when quoting or paraphrasing its contents, it is necessary to provide a proper bibliographic citation which enables readers to identify and obtain the work. Although, no individual style has emerged as the official standard to date, this bibliography lists numerous sources in a variety of formats which offer suggestions for citing electronic information. Many of the sources listed are held by the National Library of Canada.



Internet sites

Ten key Internet sites have been annotated for your convenience. These sites were selected based on content, the authority of their authorship, practicality, or for their special individual features.

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Arnzen, Michael A. "Cyber citation : documenting Internet sources presents some thorny problems." Internet world [online]. 1996, Vol. 7, no. 9 [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.internetworld.com/1996/09/cybercitations.html">.

Although this site does not offer any specific guidelines for the citation of electronic information, it does provide an interesting and informative discussion of the problems associated with the use and citation of these sources. In addition, it offers excellent suggestions and warnings for writers including Internet sources in their work.




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Bournemouth University. A guide to citing Internet sources [online]. Date unknown, "last updated June 11, 1996" [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.bournemouth.ac.uk/service-depts/lis/LIS_Pub/harvardsystint.html">.

Based on the Harvard system of citation, this site offers both outlines and examples for the citation of a variety of electronic formats including individual works, electronic journals, listservs and mailing lists, and e-mail communications. General information for determining the bibliographic details of a document is also included.




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Budge, Bill. Electronography - citing electronic sources [online]. December 1996 [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.csus.edu/csuslibr/lib119/eography.htm">.

This site offers a bibliography for both print and non-print sources discussing the citation of electronic documents which are conveniently arranged according to documentation style. It also provides outlines and examples based on both MLA and APA styles for the citation of a wide range of electronic documents taken from both the popular and less common sources such as Lexis/Nexis, Dow Jones News Retrieval, ERIC journals, and Info Trac - Information Access.




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Crouse, Maurice. Citing electronic information in history papers [online]. January 1997 [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.people.memphis.edu/~mcrouse/elcite.html">.

Focusing specifically on citation in academic history papers, this site provides the history of electronic citation and some of the pros and cons of the main sources which have attempted to impose a standard format. It also includes recommendations, complete with explanations, for a citation style adapting points from many of the recommended styles, particularly Li and Crane's, to the traditional Turabian style. The examples provided cover formats to be used for reference lists, bibliographies, and notes. This site ends with a lengthy bibliography providing links to other sites containing information on citing electronic resources.




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Greenhill, Anita. Electronic references & scholarly citations of Internet sources [online]. November 1995, "last revised: 3rd June 1997" [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "http://www.gu.edu.au/find">.

The stated purpose of this site is to "keep track of materials dealing with the emerging standards for electronic references and scholarly citations of Internet Sources in both paper and online publications". It offers a selective list of over 20 links to sites providing suggestions on the citation of electronic documents and conveniently organizes these links according to year of publication spanning 1990 through 1997. The publication date, size of site, and date of last revision are also provided for each link.




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Harnack, Andrew ; Kleppinger, Gene. Beyond the MLA handbook : documenting electronic sources on the Internet [online]. Date unknown, "date of last revision: 25 November 1996" [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "http://falcon.eku.edu/honors/beyond-mla/">.

This site addresses what the authors believe to be weaknesses in previous MLA models and provides an alternative method of citation based on the traditional MLA style. The "Notes" and "Works Cited" sections offer an excellent list of sources on the topic with links provided to internet sites. Outlines and examples for citation are provided for FTP sites, WWW sites, telnet sites, synchronous communications, gopher sites, listserv messages, newsgroup messages, e-mail messages, and linkage data.




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International Organization for Standardization. Excerpts from final draft International Standard ISO 690-2 : Information and documentation - Bibliographic references - Electronic documents or parts thereof [online]. 1997, "last updated: 1997-07-09" [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.lac-bac.gc.ca/iso/tc46sc9/standard/690-2e.htm">.

This site breaks down the various elements to be included in a bibliographic citation of an electronic document and provides detailed descriptions of each component. For each type of document, the site provides a sequential list of both the required and optional elements to be included in the citation along with a variety of examples for each document type. Types of documents addressed include electronic monographs, databases, computer programs, electronic serials, electronic bulletin boards, discussion lists, and electronic messages.




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Université Laval. Comment citer un document électronique? [online]. August 3, 1996 [cited 15 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.bibl.ulaval.ca/doelec/citedoce.html">.

The electronic citation style of this site is influenced by Li and Crane's "Electronic style : a guide to citing electronic information" and Turabian's "A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations". Each bibliographic element that might be included in an electronic document citation is briefly explained and includes the recommended rules for proper punctuation. There are 23 citation examples ranging from web sites to CD-ROMS to electronic messages. This site contains only what's strictly necessary to learn how to cite an electronic document and doesn't dwell too much on extra detail.




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University of Vermont. Bailey/Howe Library Reference Services. Electronic sources : APA style of citation [online]. Date unknown, "last update: July 27, 1996" [cited 16 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/apa.html">.

This site provides suggestions for the citation of a variety of electronic formats using the APA style established by Li and Crane. The order of citation elements and the punctuation to be used is presented in a clear and concise format and is supported by practical examples. The electronic documents addressed include individual works, parts of works, journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, discussion list messages, and personal electronic communications (e-mail).




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University of Vermont. Bailey/Howe Library Reference Services. Electronic sources : MLA style of citation [online]. Date unknown, "last update: July 26, 1996' [cited 16 July 1997]. Available from World Wide Web:
<URL: "www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/mla.html">>.

Like the APA style site launched by the University of Vermont, this site is also based on citation suggestions forwarded by Li and Crane. This site, however, deals with an MLA-compatible style. The order of citation elements and the punctuation to be used is once again presented in a clear and concise format and is supported by practical examples. The electronic documents addressed include individual works, parts of works, journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, discussion-list messages, and personal electronic communications (e-mail).

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