Artist's rendition of Henry Schmidt's 1890 COIN OPERATED APPARATUS FOR VENDING CIGARS, ETC

"Coin Operated Apparatus for Vending Cigars, etc." Patent no. 35445, filed by Henry Schmidt, 1890


Library and Archives Canada (LAC), in partnership with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO), presents Made in Canada. Patents of Invention and the Story of Canadian Innovation. This website offers a view into the Canadian patent system, its processes and its background.

Canada depends on technological progress to strengthen itself economically and industrially. Patents give inventors temporary monopolies, which provide incentive for innovation and risk-taking. Patent documents, which are always made publicly available, also aid in modernization by promoting the exchange of cutting-edge ideas and information.

Made in Canada provides two avenues for learning about the history of innovation and knowledge sharing in Canada. The exhibition portion of the website features Canadian patents from 1869 to 1894, grouped under the following themes: Agriculture; Canada and War; Communication; Gadgets and Things for Everyday Life; Industry; Medicine; Science and Technology; and Transportation. The database, alternately, offers a searchable collection of fully scanned patents from the first 25 years of the Patent Office, 1869 to 1894.

The history of patents in Canada is a story of ingenuity in response to the necessities of everyday life. It is a story of the innovative dreamers who pushed the borders of science and technology. This website presents a view of how patents have kept the creative wheels spinning.

About Made in Canada

This website features a collection of digitized images taken from microfilmed Canadian patents filed between the years 1869 and 1894. In addition, a database covering the same time span enables viewing of over 14,000 full patents registered in Canada by Canadian citizens or residents.

The Web exhibition was produced by LAC in partnership with the Canadian Intellectual Property Office ( (CIPO).


LAC would like to thank all of its staff and partners who contributed to the Made in Canada virtual exhibition. In addition, we would like to thank the following groups and individuals who shared their expert knowledge of patent materials and/or contributed content:

We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of the Department of Canadian Heritage, whose financial assistance through the Canadian Culture Online (CCO) initiative made this work possible.

We gratefully acknowledge the partnership of the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) and thank them for their interest in having LAC scan microfilmed patents from the period 1869 to1894. We look forward to finalizing with CIPO the digitization of patents from the years 1895 to 1919.

We gratefully acknowledge the Canada Science and Technology Museum's ( (CSTM) expertise regarding the history and development of inventions. CSTM also allowed photos to be taken of selected patent models and working items from their collection.

Content Providers
Paul Spendlove: Writer and writing consultant
Annick Laporte: Digital artist

Special thanks to the subject experts who kindly provided aid and advice in the writing of this site's content.